Mental health journalist and author John McManamy argues that although psychiatrists do not explicitly deal with the condition of apathy, it is a psychological problem for some depressed people, in which they get a sense that "nothing matters", the "lack of will to go on and the inability to care about the consequences". In a Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences article from , Robert Marin, MD, claimed that apathy occurs due to brain damage or neuropsychiatric illnesses such as Alzheimer's, dementia, Parkinson's, or Huntington's, or else an event such as a stroke.
Marin argues that apathy should be regarded as a syndrome or illness. A review article by Robert van Reekum, MD, et al. Apathy can be a clinical variation of depression, a manifestation of negative disorders in schizophrenia, or a symptom of various somatic and neurological disorders. Apathy affects nearly 50—70 percent of individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
It is a neuropsychiatric symptom of Alzheimer's associated with functional impairment. There are two main causes of apathy that have been recognized in patients with Alzheimer's. First, dysfunction in frontal systems of the brain is thought to be an important neurobiological basis for the onset of apathy. Second, the neuropathological changes associated with dementia, and therefore Alzheimer's, may also result in apathy. Cholinesterase inhibitors , used as the first line of treatment for the cognitive symptoms associated with dementia, have also shown some modest benefit for behavior disturbances such as apathy.
Management of apathetic symptoms using methylphenidate have shown promise in randomized placebo controlled trials of Alzheimer's patients. While apathy and anxiety may appear to be separate, and different, states of being, there are many ways that severe anxiety can cause apathy.
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First, the emotional fatigue that so often accompanies severe anxiety leads to one's emotions being worn out, thus leading to apathy. Second, the low serotonin levels associated with anxiety often lead to less passion and interest in the activities in one's life which can be seen as apathy. Third, negative thinking and distractions associated with anxiety can ultimately lead to a decrease in one's overall happiness which can then lead to an apathetic outlook about one's life.
Finally, the difficulty enjoying activities that individuals with anxiety often face can lead to them doing these activities much less often and can give them a sense of apathy about their lives.
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Even behavioral apathy may be found in individuals with anxiety in the form of them not wanting to make efforts to treat their anxiety. Often, apathy is felt after witnessing horrific acts, such as the killing or maiming of people during a war , e. It is also known to be a distinct psychiatric syndrome [ citation needed ] that is associated with many conditions, some of which are: CADASIL syndrome , depression , Alzheimer's disease , Chagas disease , Creutzfeldt—Jakob disease , dementia and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia , Korsakoff's syndrome , excessive vitamin D , hypothyroidism , hyperthyroidism , general fatigue, Huntington's disease , Pick's disease , progressive supranuclear palsy PSP , brain damage , schizophrenia , schizoid personality disorder , bipolar disorder , [ citation needed ] autism spectrum disorders, ADHD , and others.
Some medications and the heavy use of drugs such as opiates or GABA -ergic drugs may bring apathy as a side effect.
Apathy - Wikipedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Apathy disambiguation. This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Major depressive disorder. Retrieved 25 February The vocabulary of philosophy, mental, moral, and metaphysical. Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 30 April Archived from the original on 24 March Psychology Today.
Archived from the original on 4 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 January The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Psychiatric Times. In Johansson published his latest theoretical synthesis, the optic sphere theory, an innovative conceptualization that goes beyond his earlier proposals. This volume presents -- for the first time -- an extensive precis of the out-of-print classic monograph prepared by Johansson.
It also includes a representative set of Johansson's important publications produced over the ensuing four decades.
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These papers served as the springboard for a set of original essays by a distinguished group of North American and European scientists. Part critical commentary, part elaboration, and part seeking new directions, the entire collection makes for a singularly rich treatment of the perception of objects and events.
Not every digital book can be viewed using every viewing technology. Some are highly targeted to specific viewing technologies, while others are versatile and can be easily delivered to many diverse viewing environments. Also, recognize that while it may be technically straightforward to deliver a book to a wide range of viewing environments, the publisher may deliberately choose to limit the environments a digital book can be delivered to.
And of course, viewing technologies can be thought of as defining markets. Authors may choose to author for markets that they believe are large or easily reached or profitable, and as a consequence may choose to create works that deliver well to particular viewing technologies. A book-reading appliance like the Rocket eBook is a new addition to the spectrum of devices that can be used to view digital books. It's typically a portable consumer electronics product priced at a few hundred dollars that includes a high-quality display, has a form and weight factor somewhere between a hardcover book and a laptop, runs for a long time on batteries, stores perhaps books worth of content, and doesn't include a keyboard.
There's considerable variation among different brands in the way digital books are loaded into the appliance.
Some use connections to personal computers mainly Windows machines, though there is some Macintosh support that have previously downloaded books from the Internet; your "library" resides on your computer, but often isn't viewable there because the books are encrypted. Other book reader appliances use modems to download works directly from bookselling services over phone lines, or have Ethernet ports that allow them to be connected to the Internet for direct downloading of books.
These connections, which eliminate dependence on a personal computer, seem to be the trend in more recent devices such as the REB and REB The appearance of wireless connections in e-book reader appliances seems to be only a matter of time, and only await improvements in wireless standards and infrastructure. To make matters more confusing, at the same time that we've seen the emergence of book-reading appliances, we've also seen the introduction of general purpose software book readers that run on general purpose computers and that address the same functions of downloading and displaying books - products like Microsoft Reader and the newest Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Acrobat eBook Reader.
One can think of these as software products that turn a general purpose desktop or laptop computer into a book-reading appliance.
They emulate the functions of the specialized consumer electronics devices, though they can offer extra amenities because of the presence of the keyboard on a general purpose computer. While only a few tens of thousands of appliance book readers have been sold to date, the installed base for software book readers if one includes Adobe Acrobat probably numbers in the hundreds of millions.
Personal digital assistants PDA like the Palm Pilot are also being pressed into service as software-enabled book readers much like general purpose computers, though these represent a particularly constrained compromise because of their small displays and lack of a built-in keyboard or disk storage. While appliances are relatively new as real commercial products, the idea of portable book reading appliances has been around for a long time.
Alan Kay's vision of the Dynabook goes back to the s [ 3 ]. Not long after the introduction of the first personal computers, various companies began to package content and software together to turn them into book readers. These are in some ways precursors to both today's appliances and software book readers.
But the establishment publishing industry was not much engaged with these efforts except through "electronic information" or "new media" divisions or subsidiaries that were very much outside the mainline of traditional publishing. It's not until very recently that digital books have seemed poised to become a real industry competing with consumer books sales.
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There have been many barriers: the fragmentary nature of the market for reading environments and the lack of standards; the limited size of the installed base of reading environments; and, concerns about controlling intellectual property. All of these barriers are beginning to fall. In this paper, I'll use the term appliances for specialized hardware devices, software book readers for products that run on general purpose computers or general purpose PDAs, and the more generic e-book reader to cover both, but not general purpose software like a Web browser that can also be used to view some types of digital books.
While I'll try to be consistent here, be warned that this terminology is far from standardized in the industry or the media. I want to highlight two important misconceptions that have been fostered by the rhetoric about e-book readers to date. First, an e-book reader isn't good just for reading books. It's for any kind of content that's moving from print to electronic form.
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Some of the most popular content being read on e-book readers today includes newspapers like the New York Times or the Wall Street Journal, or popular general-circulation weekly magazines. Second, there's a misperception based on a notion of substitutability. Many think of an appliance reader or a more general e-book reader, loaded with the appropriate content, as a substitute for a specific book that might also be available in print form.
They talk about it and evaluate it, in that way, recognizing only that it has the marvelous chameleon-like quality that it can very quickly be made to substitute for a different printed work by simply loading different content. This is wrong. Even today's relatively primitive appliances can hold 10 or 20 books; a software book reader mounted on a high-end laptop can already store hundreds of books easily. Given the historic price-performance trajectories for storage, in a few years at least some high-end appliances will house hundreds, if not thousands, of books simultaneously, and certainly laptops with software book readers will house thousands or tends of thousands of books at once.
Think of portable personal digital libraries, not portable electronic books, as the future role of these appliances. And when we think about personal digital libraries, it's clear that the stakes are much higher; the capabilities and constraints of a reading appliance start to take on a powerful influence. And maybe this gets us thinking in some new directions.
Imagine you have a portable device that can hold 5, books. You perhaps stop just purchasing individual books to read; instead, you think about selecting the best supplier of a reference library of books to have available to consult should you need to. You think about choosing a subscription service; in which case the choices that the service makes about which new books to add every week or every month begin to have a major influence on shaping the information and the views available to you.
Issues of searching and selecting the right books and the right passages in the books becomes a important function that none of the current reader manufacturers seem to be thinking much about. We can think about purchasing books from multiple publishers when we think about an e-book reader as a surrogate for individual books.
Is it equally reasonable and realistic to think about having it integrate subscriptions for reference libraries from multiple sources, or combing a reference library subscription with random purchases from specific publishers?